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Jan 06

Daliy Used Vitamins

Posted by: Cathy in Nutrition

Tagged in: vitamin



          Vitamin A, which is soluble in fat solvents while insoluble in water, has a heat stable in absence of air and easily destroyed on exposure to air or ultra violet rays. There are two main sources for us to get Vitamin A and they are animal sources and vegetable sources. Cod liver oil, halibut liver oil, milk, butter, eggs and fishes are all included in animal sources. For vegetable sources, we have carrots, spinach, vegetable oils, green leaves, and yellow fruits, etc. For example, you can eat mangoes or tomatoes to generate Vitamin A. Actually, Vitamin A has lots of functions and it is one of the most important nutrition for human’s body as well. Actually, Vitamin A is essential for growth. Since it is a component of rhodopsin, it is also an essential for night vision. Vitamin A helps in the preservation of structural integrity and the normal permeability of membranes. We can use it to maintain our health and activity of epithelial tissues and glands. Preventing infection, maintaining nutrition and functions of the nervous tissue are also two functions of Vitamin A. Besides that, it controls the action of the bone cells, formation and sulphation of mucopolysaccharides, helps in normal fertility and also helps in glucose synthesis by stimulating enzymes concerned. Additionally, if we cannot generate enough Vitamin A for our body, we maybe in the potential of have some effects of deficiency, such as night blindness, Xerophthalmia, Keratinization of skin and mucous membrane with increased susceptibility to infection, retardation of growth in children and defective growth of bone and teeth. Obviously, Vitamin A is very much important to human beings, but how much we should get every day? In fact, for most of adults, we need 5000 i.u. for daily requirement. For growing children and during puberty, lactation and pregnancy, they need 6000 to 8000 i.u. every day.


          Vitamin D is another important vitamin for us. It is soluble in fat solvents but insoluble in water. Vitamin D can be absorbed from lots of ways. The richest sources are fish-liver oils, such as cod liver oil, halibut liver oil. Of course, you can also find them in butter, milk, eggs or liver, etc. Vitamin D favors calcium and phosphorus absorption from the intestine. It is related to calcium and phosphorus metabolism and helps in the bone formation by direct action on bone cells. Vitamin D also helps in the development of the normal teeth and activates the alkaline phosphatase in bone, kidney and intestine. When we lack of vitamin D we maybe will have threaten of bone growth defection, condition known as rickets in infants and children and osteomalacia in adults. In addition, the formation of teeth becomes defective and leads to development of dental caries, and has tetany in infants. For growing children and during pregnancy and lactation, they need 400 to 800 i.u every day.

          Vitamin E is one of the vitamins which we most familiar with. It is soluble in fat and fat solvents. Vitamin E has a heat stable and exists naturally as yellow oil. In foods, acts as an antioxidant and prevents vitamin A, form oxidative destruction. There are three forms of tocopherols alpha, beta and gamma. The most active form is the alpha tocopherol. We can get Vitamin E from animal sources, such as egg, milk, fish and muscles, and vegetable sources, such as vegetable seed oils, especially wheat, soybean and corn. It has also been produced synthetically. Vitamin E is very important for us because tocopherols act as a cofactor in the electron transport system acting between cytochromes b and c and have got anti-oxidative effects and prevent oxidation. Vitamin E prevents sterility and it is essential for fetal development. We need it for normal function of muscles and it will help us to maintain the physiological equilibrium in vascular and nervous system. When vitamine E will be lacked, the deficiency may cause the death of the fetus after implantation. It is of some help in the prevention of habitual miscarriage in women. It also helps in increased metabolic rate and development of muscular dystrophy. In males, its deficiency may produce atrophy of testis and changes in germinal epithelium. Average daily intake in diet is about 15 to 20 mgm, which satisfies the requirement.

          Most of us may not familiar with vitamin K, however, it is also an important vitamin for our daily intake.  Vitamin K is fact-soluble and has a heat stable. It can be generated from vegetable sources, such as cabbage, spinach, alfalfa, tomato, soybean, etc. It has also been produced synthetically. As vitamin A, C and D, vitamin K also has lots of benefits for us. It catalyzes the formation of prothrombin and factor VII in the blood and helps in the normal coagulation of blood. Vitamin K has been suggested that this vitamin acts as a coenzyme for some enzymes responsible for normal clotting reactions. It plays an important role in oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria and bile salts are necessary for the absorption of vitamin K. if vitamin K is lacked, we may have dective blood coagulation due to reduction of prothrombin and factor VII in the blodd causes haemorrhages. The haemorrhagic disease in the new born is believed to be due to lack of vitamin K. normal mixed diet supplies adequate amount. In the treatment of certain heamorrhapic disease, 5 mgm is given either orally or by injection.

          For vitamin B, we have lots of categories and they are vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, B9 and B12. Vitamin B1, who calls thiamine, has white crystalline substance, and it is water soluble in heat labile. Vitamin B1 is unstable at high temperature and in alkaline medium while stable in acid medium. B1 can be got from vegetable sources, such as cereals pulses, nuts, yeast, beets, carrots, turnips, lettuce, cauliflower, pears, beans etc. Polished rice or white flour is poor in this vitamin. Animal sources are another big source for us to get vitamin B1; however, egg yolk contains fair amount. B1 has also been produced synthetically. B1 acts as a coenzyme of the carboxylase, which helps in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. It is an essential step n the oxidation of sugar in the tissues and brain. In this absence of this vitamin, pyruvic and lactic acid fail to be broken down, and accumulate in blood and tissues. Vitamin B1 helps the enzyme system for the synthesis of fats from carbohydrates and proteins. When we lack it, beri-beri-dry, wet, cardiac or mixed type will be affected. Dry beri beri is associated with disorders of nervous system; cardiac beriberi is associated with signs of congestive cardiac and circulatory failure. In we beriberi, polyneuritis is accompanied by oedema. In mixed beriberi, there is a comination of the above conditions. Loss of appetite, atony of the gastrointestinal tract and hyperchlorhydria. In addition to these signs heart becomes weak and enlarged and oedema of the legs occurs. Cardiac failure may also occur in some patients. About 1.8 mgm for a diet producing 3000 calories. The requirement is increased in pregnancy, lactation, heavy muscular work, high carbohydrate diet etc.

          Vitamin B2, who calls riboflavin, is yellow crystals and sparingly soluble in water. It has heat stable in neutral and acid media and can be destroyed by light. Vitamin B2 can also be absorbed from animal sources, such as milk, liver, kidney, muscle, raw egg, and vegetable sources, such as whole grains and green leafy vegetables. It has been synthetically produced. What vitamin B2 can give us are helping us for growth and tissue oxidation. In the tissues riboflavin exists as flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. These two coenzymes in combination with protein are termed flavoprotein, which have a major functional role as a number of enzyme systems. It is also related to carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Keratitis, corneal opacities, vascularisation of cornea and phtophobia will be affected if we lack vitamin B2. We may loss of hair, and skin will become dry and scale and arrest of growth. For daily intake, we need 0.025 mgm of riboflavin per 1.0 gm of protein.

          Vitamin B3, who calls Niacin, is a white crystalline substance. It is moderately soluble in water and has a heat stable. Both vegetable sources, such as dried legumes, peas, beans, tomatoes, whole wheat meal, green vegetables, and animal sources, like meat, fish, liver, milk, eggs, yeast, kidneys, heart can get vitamin B3. It has also been produced synthetically. Actually, B3 acts as a pellagra-preventing factor and it is essential for growth. It remains as a part of at least two enzymes- NAD and NADP. They act along with dehydrogenase and take part in tissue oxidation. B3 helps in the formation of fats from carbohydrates and stimulates the central nervous system. When B3 is lacked, dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia will be affected. In fact, pellagra is a characteristic dermatitis especially on the exposed parts of the body. The dermatitis begins with erythema resembling sunburnt areas. Gradually these areas become reddish brown, rough, scaly and keratotic. In addition, we may have Gastro-intestinal disorders, polyneuritis and various forms of metal disorders as well. For daily intake requirements, we need 12 to 18 mgm for adult males and a little less in adult females. Requirement varies with the protein content of diet, as amino acid tryptophan gives rise to niacin.

          Vitamin B5, who calls pantothenic acid, is a white crystalline substance and has a highly soluble in water. It has a heat stable. Animal sources, such as meat, fish, liver, milk, eggs, yeast, kidneys, heart and vegetable sources, such as molasses, wheat, bran, peas, sweet potatoes are the biggest two sources to get B5. Vitamin B5 has been produced synthetically as well. In fact, B5 plays a fundamental role in the metabolism as coenzyme A. In combination with succinate forms active succinate and helps in the biosynthesis of haemoglobin. It also helps in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. If B5 is lacked, various tissues will be affected, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, alopecia, cornification fo the skin and hypofunction fo the adrenal gland. Average daily diet contains 10 mgm.

          Vitamin B6, who calls Pyridoxine, occurs in three forms, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and pyridoxine. It is a white crystal soluble in water and has a heat stable in both acidic and alkaline solutions. We can get B6 from vegetable sources, such as germs of various grains and seeds, leafy vegetable, and animal sources, like liver, egg-yolk, meat, kidney, and yeast as well. B6 has also been produced synthetically. Vitamin B6 helps in the normal metabolism of tryptophan and it acts as a coenzyme for transaminase or aminotrasferases, decarboxylases and desulphydrases. It is related to the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and helps in the synthesis of fats from proteins and carbodydrates. Vitamin B6 is also called antidermatitis factor as well. Effects also be applied if vitamin B6 is lacked. Peculiar dermatitis and hypochromic microcytic anaemia will be affected. We may have weakness of muscles and convulsive seizures. In person suffering pellagra and beriberi, synthetic B6 can easily cure insomnia, irritability, abdominal pain, difficulty in walking, etc, which cannot be cured by other vitamins. We need B6 0.3 mgm per day in infants and in adults 2.0 mgm daily.  It is sufficient is normal diet.

          Vitamin B8, who calls Biotin, is soluble in water and alcohol. It has a heat stable and resistant to acids and alkalis. It contains sulphur. Vitamin B8 widely distributed in all common articles of food, especially in yeast, egg-yolk, kidney, liver, cauliflower, peas etc. for raw egg, white contains avidin, which antagonizes and prevents its action. B8 acts as a coenzyme in CO2 fixation for the urea formation as well as for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines and fatty acids. It also helps in deamination of therionine, erine and aspartic acid. Vitamin B8 prevents dermatitis. The weakness of B8 will causes peculiar dermatitis, symptons resembling thiamine deficiency and rise of blood cholesterol in man. However, its deficiency does not occur normally but may be induced by either feeding raw egg white or intake of sulphur drugs, which interferes with the biosynthesis of this vitamin in the intestine. Average intake in human is 150 to 300 micro gram daily and average daily diet contains sufficient amount.

          Vitamin B9, who calls folic acid, is a yellow compound. It is slightly soluble in water and destroyed by light. Animal sources, like liver, kidney, and vegetable sources, such as plants and green vegetables can get vitamin B9. It is essential for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the nuclei of the cells. Along with vitamin B12, vitamin B9 helps in the synthesis of nucleic acid and is also related to phospholipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism.  B9 deficiency may produce anaemia, leucopenia and agranulocytosis. Megaloblastic anaemia occurs especially during pregnancy. Pernicious anaemia may develop as a result of deficiency of this vitamin along with vitamin B12 deficiency. Average daily diet of adults contains about 50 micro-gram of vitamin B9, which seems to be adequate.

          The last category in vitamin B is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is a red crystalline substance and soluble in water. It is absent in plants but present in almost all animal tissues. Rich sources are liver, kidney, eggs, beef extract, milk, etc. It is also found in fungus, like streptomyces griseus. Hence vitamin B12 is obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of streptomycin. Vitamin B12 haws antipernicious anemia factor and is essential for the formation and maturation of red blood cells. Recent studies indicate that vitamin B12 is Castle’s extrinsic factor. The intrinsic factor helps in its absorption from the intestine. B12 plays an essential role in the synthesis of the nucleic acid. It increases the white cell count and the platelets through its action in the bone marrow and maintains the normal health and activity of certain parts of nervous system. It cures pernicious anaemia and also neurological manifestations of pernicious anaemia. B12 is related to nucleoprotein, protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Pernicious or macrocytic anaemia will be affected because of the B12 shortage. It brings about hyperglycaemia and reduction in growth, nervousness and irritability is also observed. The requirement of B12 intake is about 1 micro gram per day.

The last important vitamin for our daily use is vitamin C and we also call it ascorbic acid. It is vhite crystals and soluble in water while insoluble in fat solvents. Vitamin C has a heat labile and easily oxidized at 100 C in presence of oxygen. It cannot stand cooking and canning and should be destroyed by alkali and copper salts. Vitamin C can be generated from vegetable sources and animal sources. Both fresh fruits, like orange, lemon, tomato and fresh vegetables, like cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce have plentiful of vitamin C. properly sprouted pulses, germinating grams etc. in animal source, vitamin C generally contains a negligible amount. In fact, vitamin C regulates oxidation-reduction potential inside the cell. It is related to carbohydrate metabolism and essential for the proper functioning of the formative cells of various tissues such as fibroblast, osteoblast. It helps in the development of proteninicious matrix and deposition of calcium and phosphate in bones. Vitamin C plays a role in wound repair and in some way it is also related to the synthesis of steroid hormone. Vitamin C is so important that we cannot lack it in our body. If it lacked, scurvy will be affected, which increase fragility of the capillaries causing haemorrhages, under the skin, periosteum, intestine, kidney etc. In addition, the gums show erosion of the mucous membrane at their margins and due to increased fragility of the capillaries, there is frequent bleeding. Malformation of bones and teeth will be caused. New dentine is not formed and the tissue becomes spongy and porous. Deficiency also produces anaemia, delayed blood clotting and clot retraction skin eruption, increased susceptibility to infections, impaired healing of wounds, disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism and reproductive failure both in make and females. For intake requirements, in adults normally 75 mgm on the average, during pregnancy, lactation and adolescence 100 to 150 mgm approximately.


Comments (2)Add Comment
written by a guest, Thursday, 06:42 PM, January 06, 2011
It's nice to finally have a list like this somewhere online of Vitamins! Thanks for posting this great article in your blog!
written by jfrancis, Tuesday, 04:26 PM, January 18, 2011
Thanks for the information. It's always good to know what to put in your body and what it does for you.

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